- Lit., "heel." Jacob is the third patriarch, son of Isaac and Rebecca and father to the 12 tribes, the people Israel. More than any of the other patriarchs, Jacob wrestles with God and evolves from a deceitful, deal-making young man to a mature, faithful partner to God.
- Lit., "city of peace.” From the time of David to the Roman destruction, Jerusalem was the capital of Israel and the spiritual and governmental center of the Jewish people. During the long exile, Jews longed to return to Jerusalem and wrote poems, prayers, and songs about the beloved city. In 1967, with the capture of the Old City, Jerusalem was reunited, becoming "the eternal capital of Israel." Still, the longing for peace is unfulfilled.
- Jacob's eldest son by his beloved wife, Rachel. Joseph, the dreamer, was his father's favorite and nearly murdered by his brothers. Sold into slavery, he became viceroy of Egypt where he ultimately saves the Egyptians and also his own family from starvation.
- The story of Judith, found in the apocrypha, is associated with Chanukah (relating to the tradition of eating cheese dishes). Judith saved her people by seducing Holofernes, the enemy general, and then decapitating him.